• Current Era: Cotton, Cattle, and Railroads


    1. barbed wire: clusters of sharp wire on fences to obstruct movement
    2. Buffalo Soldiers: African American soldiers who served in the military in the late 1800s
    3. expansion: to gain, as land/territory
    4. immigration: the action of coming permanently to a foreign country
    5. reservations: public lands where the federal government forced Native Americans were forced to live
    6. sharecropping: a system of farming in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on the land; the owner gets richer while the tenant gets progressively poorer
    7. tenant farming: a system in which farmers rent the land they farm
    8. vaquero: Spanish cowboy

    Essential Question:

    How did the cattle drives, the railroads, and farming technology expand the economy of Texas?

    How does race and gender impact citizen experiences in the growing Texas economy?

    How did the closing of the frontier affect the lives of African Americans, Anglos, Tejanos, and Native Americans?

    TEKS: 7.6, 7.10, 7.20(c)


    Upcoming Eras:

    • Age of Oil/Conservatism/World War I
    • Great Depression & World War II
    • Civil Rights & Modern Texas