Texas Education Code (TEC) §38.003 defines dyslexia in the following way:

      • “Dyslexia” means a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity.
      • “Related disorders” include disorders similar to or related to dyslexia, such as:
        • developmental auditory imperceptions
        • dysphasia
        • specific developmental dyslexia
        • developmental dysgraphia
        • developmental spelling disability.

    The International Dyslexia Association defines dyslexia in the following way: (Adopted by the International Dyslexia Association Board of Directors, November 12, 2002)

    • Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge


    Primary Characteristics

    • Difficulty decoding words
    • Difficulty reading words in isolation
    • Poor reading fluency (rate and/or accuracy)
    • Poor spelling

    Underlying Cause

    • Difficulties with phonological processing
    • Phonemic Awareness
    • Rapid Naming
    • Phonological Memory

    Possible Secondary Outcomes

    • Weaker
      • Reading Comprehension
      • Reading vocabulary & background knowledge
      • Written expression

    The above weaknesses are unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and effective classroom instruction.


    Dyslexia Resources

    The Dyslexia Handbook: Texas Education Agency (pdf)
    El Manual Sobre La Dislexia (pdf)
    Appendix A - Dyslexia Handbook FAQ (Updated March 18, 2022) 
    Important Changes to the Texas Dyslexia Handbook
    Cambios importantes en el Manual de Dislexia de Texas

    Dyslexia Intervention:

    Students identified with dyslexia may be served through either § 504 or IDEA/Special Education depending on the significance of the impact on educational opportunities. The committee, based on student data, determines placement.

    Dyslexia services may include direct instruction, using an Orton-Gillingham researched-based program, reasonable accommodations, or both. The committee addressing the student’s needs will determine what services best meet those needs and will document services in the plan developed for the student.

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